Article 2: The Personal Learning Space

Our goal as educators is to develop independence for all our students when possible. Intrinsic motivation seems to be a learning maturation issue for students. (Pew,2007). For younger students this is evidenced by the level of extrinsic motivation used in classrooms today i.e. all schools have reward systems to motivate. The five assertion in the science of andragogy has some similarities to the WALT, (What Are we Learning To…) WILF (What I’m Looking For…) and TIB (This IS Because…) questions applied in some schools. Most students, child or adult can only achieve this by a mixture of explicit instruction involving a gradual release of responsibility from the teacher to the student through experience and self-reflection. The model Taxonomy of Reflection is set up for the adult learner but with some adjustment and differentiation can be used for primary aged children. (Pappas, 2010). I have personally used reflection for younger students and it is interesting to see them ask if they can change something in the task they have just reflected on.
At the very core of all learners to be successful is the level of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is formed in early childhood and as children are exposed to varied experiences, tasks and situations they acquire more skill and understanding. (Cherry, 2018).
This is a sobering thought that as teachers in the classroom one of our first responsibility is to build self-efficacy in our students.


Cherry, K. (2017). Self Efficacy: Why Believing in Yourself Matters. Retrieved from

Pappas, P. (2010). The Reflective Student: A Taxonomy of Reflection (Part 2). Retrieved from

Pew, S. (2007). Andragogy and Pedagogy as Foundational Theory for Student Motivation in Higher Education. Student Motivation, 2, 17-18.


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